An Early Medieval Experience for CA Volunteers!

As part of our busy work experience programme, two students from local schools were treated to a talk from our post-excavation processor, Claire Collier.

three people standing in front of the camera with weapon, woman in the middle holding a shield and an axe looking scaryClaire is a member of Regia Anglorum, an early medieval re-enactment and living history group. The group aims to reenact as accurately as possible the lives of people from a cross-section of English society at around the turn of the first millennium AD. The group’s watchword is ‘authenticity’ and they will not make any item of kit that they cannot verify from contemporary sources. All aspects of life are portrayed by the group, ranging from the lowly baker to the mighty warrior.

The students were shown reconstructed items used in everyday early medieval life, including clothes and dress accessories. They also learned about the early medieval diet, handling objects associated with eating and drinking such as wooden bowls and ceramic and horn cups.

They were also able to handle weapons which have been reconstucted based on archaeological finds of Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman arms, including a sword, axe, mace and bow and arrow.

Don’t worry, they’re not as scary as they look! (Well, except for Claire maybe…)

For more information on Regia Anglorum, visit their web page at: regia.org

Author: Hazel O’Neill
Date: August 2018

 


Bristol’s Brilliant Archaeology 2018

archaeologist behind the table showcasing artefacts. A woman and a boy in front of the table asking questions and looking at the findsOn Saturday (28th July) Cotswold Archaeology attended Bristol’s Brilliant Archaeology Day held by Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery in the beautiful Blaise Castle Estate. The event focuses on the amazing archaeology to be found in and around the city. Unfortunately, the heat wave came to an abrupt end, forcing us to dismantle wind swept gazebos and head indoors where it was much dryer!

Once we’d dried off, we were able to showcase some of the finds from our most recent excavations at the new UWE sport pitches including a beautiful Roman glass bead and two Roman coins (see below). We also featured finds from our central Bristol site at Redcliffe and another Roman site in Thornbury.

two coins showing obverse and reverse

Mineralised poo and saponified fat
Top: mineralised poo; bottom: saponified fat

The Redcliffe site has produced lots of well-preserved medieval organic material, including soap and human faeces. Visitors of all ages had a go at our ‘Mystery Find’ guessing game and also tried to identify the difference between medieval soap and medieval poo.

These unusual finds inspired our soap making activity and over 150 soaps were made throughout the course of the day. The soap included herbs and biodegradable glitter of the maker’s choice, so there were plenty of bespoke examples in bathrooms across Bristol on Sunday morning.

This was one of the events busiest years yet and there were 1286 visitors taking part in a huge range of archaeological activities. It was great to meet and answer questions from so many people and we had a lot of fun doing so.

Hazel O’Neill

people at the table making soap


Volunteers’ Day at Cirencester

On 9th March Cotswold Archaeology held a thank-you day for volunteers who work in the Cirencester office. After a busy year of hard toil we thought it was about time that we thanked our brilliant volunteers by treating them to a series of talks from some of our experts.

A woman (osteologist) giving a talk in front of a small audience sitting around the table. Screen with a slideshow in the backgroundThe talks focussed on archaeological projects the volunteers had worked on, whilst others looked at museum store projects also involving volunteers. Some talks were just an excuse to look at recent amazing finds we have been working on! This is always a special occasion for staff and volunteers alike.

Our volunteers come from a variety of backgrounds but all have a love of archaeology. We train our volunteers in a number of tasks, usually introducing them to things they might never have tried before. Our projects range from working on skeletons from Anglo-Saxon execution cemeteries to preparing finds from large city-centre sites for museum deposition. We also run museum store projects where volunteers help local museums assess what they hold and the best way to preserve their collections for the future.

The talks were followed up by ‘a good spread’. Sandwiches and fizzy pop were consumed whilst beautiful (and carefully handled) artefacts were admired. Although we have had to temporarily suspend our volunteer programme at Cirencester, we are looking forward to further exciting volunteer projects and the next thank-you day for volunteers!

Hazel O’Neill

a group of volunteers posing in front of a CA banner


Cotswold Archaeology Nominated for Two Current Archaeology Awards!

The 2018 Current Archaeology Awards nominations have been announced, and we are fortunate enough to have been nominated for two awards, both in the Research Project of the Year category!

Archaeology Awards nominee badge for Roman Rural settlement projectRome’s Homes On The Range: Revealing the Romano-British Countryside

This nomination is for our work as partners with the University of Reading on the Roman Rural Settlement Project. This major project, funded by the Leverhulme Trust and Historic England, drew together published and unpublished excavated evidence for Roman rural settlement, from over 2500 sites, in order to produce a new synthesis of the countryside of Britain during the Roman period. The results of the project are presented in three volumes, dealing respectively with the rural settlement pattern, the rural economy, and life and death in the countryside. The first two of these volumes are now published!

Additionally, the project produced an online resource, which makes the data collected by the project (including site plans and information about artefacts and environmental evidence) available to anyone who wishes to use it. This resource is hosted by the Archaeology Data Service.

It is no overstatement to say that this project has been immensely influential, and its results are transforming our understanding of rural settlement, industry and life in Roman Britain.

Cover of Britannia monographs
screenshot of the ADS project website

Don’t believe us? Prof. Richard Hingley, author of an early and influential previous study of Romano-British rural settlement, has said:

‘The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain Project’ and its outputs will doubtless serve as an exemplar for future initiatives that seek to address rural settlement in the Western Roman Empire, and will provide a vital research tool for future work in England and Wales.
R Hingley, 2017 Antiquity August 2017

Archaeology Awards nominee badge for Boxford community digBellerephon in Boxford: A Mythological Mosaic Revealed

This nomination relates to our work on a community project, ‘ Revealing Boxford’s Ancient Heritage’, a joint project involving CA, the Boxford History Project, and the Berkshire Archaeology Research Group. Funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, over three years the project has investigated three closely linked Roman sites near to the village of Boxford in West Berkshire. This summer our excavation revealed a spectacular Roman mosaic (you may have heard of it!), associated with a late Roman villa.

Matt Nichol working on the mosaicThe figurative mosaic is packed with mythical characters and beasts based on Greek legend, including a scene depicting the hero Bellerophon, fighting the Chimera. Other figures on the mosaic possibly include Hercules fighting a centaur, Cupid holding a wreath, and depictions of telamons in the corners.

The discovery of this exceptional mosaic attracted international attention; mosaic specialist Antony Beeson has said:

This is without question the most exciting mosaic discovery made in Britain in the last fifty years and must take a premier place amongst those Romano-British works of art that have come down to modern Britons.

Left to Right: Potentially Hercules fighting the Centaur & Cupid with a wreath in his right hand
Left to Right: Potentially Hercules fighting the Centaur & Cupid with a wreath in his right hand

All nominations for the Current Archaeology Awards are based on articles and books featured within Current Archaeology over the last 12 months. Voting for the awards is live (until 5th February 2018) and is open to everyone. We’d be very grateful for your support!


Take a virtual tour of the wreck of the London

For the first time, non-divers can explore the protected historic wreck site of the 350-year-old warship the London – one of England’s most important 17th-century shipwrecks – which lies in two parts in the Thames estuary off Southend Pier. Historic England has commissioned Cotswold Archaeology, in collaboration with ArtasMedia, CyanSub and MSDS Marine, to create a 3D virtual tour of the London wreck site, which is extraordinarily well preserved.
The ship blew up on 7th March 1665 after gunpowder stored on board caught fire during a journey from Chatham to the Hope, near Gravesend. The ship was en route to collect final supplies after being mobilised to take part in the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–7.

A group of people standing behind freshly excavated gun carriage from the LondonSince 2010, the site has been monitored and investigated by the licensee, Steve Ellis, and his team in collaboration with Cotswold Archaeology (since 2014), and previously with Wessex Archaeology. A small part of the wreck was also excavated by Historic England in 2015, and an extremely rare wooden gun carriage was recovered as well as more than 700 artefacts, some of which are already on display at the Southend Museum.

Alison James, Maritime Archaeologist at Historic England said: We are delighted that for the first time we can bring the wreck of the London to the ‘surface’ for all to explore. The#LondonWreck1665 project has been a high profile project yet to date only a small number of divers have been able to explore the site. The wreck is located in poor visibility right next to a shipping channel in a highly tidal environment, so not an easy or attractive place to dive.”

Alison James continued: “This virtual trail means that people can explore the site without even getting wet! The Historic England virtual dive trail scheme has shown that underwater archaeology can be accessible to all, allowing us to dive in to history from the comfort of our own home.”

“The diving conditions are so challenging that it is a pleasure to be able to see the site on my computer screen, as can others. I have to take my hat off to the licensee team, Steve and Carol Ellis, and Steve Meddle, for diving to monitor the site week-in and week-out. It is a huge commitment for which they should be congratulated.”

Overview of the application showing the wreck

The dive trail takes the form of an interactive website which includes images, video, audio commentary and panoramas, outlining the history of the ship, its loss, and its re-discovery, as well as the archaeological investigations that have been conducted on site in recent years.

The website has sections that provide details of the ship’s construction, the weaponry it carried, nautical and other equipment, and personal items of the crew. The site also provides details of the ongoing analysis and conservation of some of the rare items that have been recovered that will enhance our knowledge and understanding of life on board a 17th-century warship.

For the virtual tour of the wreck visit The London on CloudTour.


Roman stamped tiles from Gloucester – a rediscovery

Dr Peter Warry FSA is an expert on Roman ceramic building material, and has just published an article on the use of stamped Roman tiles in Gloucestershire. Among other things, in his new article Peter posits that Hucclecote villa, situated to the east of Gloucester, played an important role as a sort of recycling depot for tile.

Peter’s work on the tile was supported in no small way by CA’s Hazel O’Neill, Post-Excavation Supervisor, who managed a team of volunteers as part of the Gloucester Museum Store Project. This successful initiative consolidated a number of unorganised excavation archives and finds assemblages held by Gloucester museum, dating back to the 1980s, ordering the material and bringing the archives in line with modern curation standards.

Dr Peter Warry, recording a stamped tile in the museum store
Dr Peter Warry, recording a stamped tile in the museum store
A stamped Roman tile from Gloucester, found in the museum store
A stamped Roman tile from Gloucester, found in the museum store

The work of Hazel and her team enabled previously unreported Roman tiles (and other finds) within these excavation archives to be catalogued and reported on for the first time. One box of stamped tile had been missing for several years, having been searched for unsuccessfully by several people previously. It was finally rediscovered lurking in a store by a member of Hazel’s team.

The missing box, from a site at Commercial Road, carried a different site name on the front (the right name was on the back, which couldn’t be seen), was not in the museum’s catalogue and was known only from a 1988 report by Tim Darvill. However, this box contained around 100 stamped tiles – roughly a quarter of the entire corpus of Gloucester civic stamped tiles. Dr Warry was so happy about the rediscovery that he kissed the box!

Peter’s work on the material is published as Warry, P. 2017. ‘Production, Distribution, Use and Curation: A Study of Stamped Tile from Gloucestershire’, Britannia 48, 77-115

An abstract can be viewed online.

CA volunteer, Valentina Perrone, recording a stamped tile
CA volunteer, Valentina Perrone, recording a stamped tile